The BIS authorities, in order to keep pace with the changes in the International specification, applications and usage conditions in India, have been revising the IS 694 Standard from time to time to keep the industry and consumers abreast with these changes. The last (4th) revision of IS 694 took place in the year 2010, and this revision though long overdue, sets norms which are in tune with international specifications. The IS 694: Revision 4: 2010 forms a major basis of our analysis in this article. - Vimal Kumar Chopra
Self-regulating trace heater cables on roofs or gutters are used to melt ice during winter months. When used in gutters the cable is not meant to keep the gutters free of ice or snow, but only to provide to free path for the melted water to get off the roof and down the downspout or drain piping. Similarly, hot water service piping can be traced, so that a circulating system is not needed to provide hot water at outlets. The combination of trace heating and the correct thermal balance where the heat output from the trace heating matches the heat loss from the pipe. Self –limiting or regulating tapes have been developed and are very useful in this application. In this paper authors like to discuss about development, uses and product classification approach to measure the temperature class of thermopads make self-regulating type trace heater model STF 15 J. - Navin Kumar, A. K. Singh, Arvind Kumar, Prasad Bhukya, Rakesh Kumar Mishra
The challenge is how to perform cable underground installations in the most cost effective manner. The total costs of underground cable systems can vary widely even for the same voltage, power and length, making it difficult to generalise... - Diego Cisilino
Partial discharge inception voltage is one of the most important parameters used to characterise partial discharge. If the PDIV measurement at the new frequency is higher than at 50/60 Hz, it may create false negatives... - Henning Oetjen
Constant advances in materials, test standards and procedures ensure reliability and predictability.
Right selection of cables is not only very important for reliability of power supply and safety of devices as well as human beings present around them, it also prevents loss of assets and saves costly business hours. - K Sivakumar
Cables are extensively used in photovoltaic systems and their management can often be critical for effective functioning. Various standards for cables used for the purpose are also being discussed. - Dr L Ashok Kumar