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Typical Phenomena in Transformers & Protections

An analysis of the current during an over excitation condition shows a predominant 5th harmonic component while analysis of inrush current shows a predominant 2nd Harmonic component. These characteristics help to differentiate an over excitation condition from inrush current condition. - Rajesh Chourishi

Dielectric Technology in Transformer

Utilities and transformer manufacturers focus on the design and manufacture of environmentally-friendly transformers that are nonhazardous while offering improved life cycle costs with minimal maintenance. These transformers offer reduced carbon footprint, reduced levels of pollution (water, soil, noise), enhanced lifecycle costs, enhanced product lifetime, and enhanced fire safety…

Preventing Failure

Selection  of  the  Circuit  Breaker  has  to  be  done  carefully,  so that  it  does  not  allow the transformer  to exceed  the permissible  winding  temperature. The  built-in Bi-metallic  strips mounted  in  the  Circuit  Breaker, located  below  the top oil, achieve  the temperature  sensing   function. The  circuit  breaker thus  provides  Thermal matching  with  the  transformer & protects it against  over  loads... - C.V.Govinda Raju

Using Numerical Relay Micom P632

The major operating challenge to transformer differential protection is maintaining security during CT saturation for external faults while maintaining sensitivity to detect low magnitude internal faults. CT saturation reduces the secondary output from the CT, and cause a false differential current to appear to relay… - Shrotriya Keyal

Selection & Application Of Surge Arrester

Electrical equipment like transformer, generator, CTs, PTs and motor requires to be protected from over voltages. Surge arrester is used to protect these equipments from lightning and switching over voltages. Modern day’s surge arrester uses Metal oxide varistor as an active element  and provides exceptional overvoltage protection to the equipment connected to the power system... - Abhijit Dhamale, P Kirushnaraj

Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Differential Protection for Power Transformers

Transformers are a critical and expensive equipment in the power system network. They function as a node to connect two different voltage levels. Hence, the availability of their service is vital in maintaining the continuous power supply to consumers. Since many decades, differential protection provides the best overall protection for a power transformer to protect against faults... - Narri Yadaiah, Nagireddy Ravi

Trends In The Standards For Dry Type Transformers

With the increasing use of Dry type transformers, it is important for the utilities and the regulators to have norms for losses for Dry type transformers – as we have norms for oil immersed transformers in form of star labelling programme... - Sailesh Purohit, Thomas Lim, Radoslaw Szewczyk

Fault Level Role in Selection of Protective Equipment in Power System

Almost after a decade, US economy on rising trend, a very good news for all of us. India is also an emerging economy, where power sector has to play crucial role. - Aqeel Ahmad
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